How are validators monitored?

The node core in a validator within the SKALE Network has a primary role in moderating the network – a role that is in addition to self-organizing around the validation and operation of sidechains and subchains. Each node gathers and uploads data in service of keeping the network honest and operational. Each node in the network is continuously monitoring a random set of 24 nodes, gathering data and pulling log files from these nodes. The node core will score each of the nodes, looking at uptime, latency, performance and other metrics and then basing the score on whether certain thresholds are met or not. This mechanism is a part of the SKALE Node Monitoring Service and is called the SKALE SLA function.

Nodes submit their metrics to a contract on the mainnet which blends, processes, and aggregates them to get a clear picture of network and node health. If a node is deemed to have performed well during an epoch, it gets to participate in the award from the bounty pool. If a node performs poorly, it will not receive an award for that period. If it acts maliciously, it may get flagged and pulled from the network. In the case of the latter event i.e. suspicions of cheating, indications of having been hacked, or engagement in other malicious acts, a review process will be initiated which could end up with node stake getting slashed.